Object storage has only been around since the mid-90s. As the relatively new kid on the block, there can be some confusion as to how it differs from other storage types, such as block or file storage. This post is the first in a series looking at these key differences.
A Primer on File Storage
File storage has been around for considerably longer than object storage, and is something most people are familiar with. You name your files/data, place them in folders, and can nest them under more folders to form a set path. In this way, files are organized into a hierarchy, with directories and sub-directories. Each file also has a limited set of metadata associated with it, such as the file name, the date it was created, and the date it was last modified.
This works very well up to a point, but as capacity grows the file model becomes burdensome for two reasons. First, performance suffers beyond a certain capacity. The NAS system itself has limited processing power, making the processor a bottleneck. Performance also suffers with the massive database – the file lookup tables– that accompany capacity growth.
What is Object Storage?
Object storage essentially bundles the data itself along with metadata tags and a unique identifier. The metadata is customizable, which means you can input a lot more identifying information for each piece of data. These objects are stored in a flat address space, which makes it easier to locate and retrieve your data across regions.
This flat address space also helps with scalability. By simply adding in additional nodes, you can scale to petabytes and beyond.
Object Storage vs. File Storage
Now that you know the basics of both object storage and file storage, let’s look at some of the key differences separating the two.
To start, object storage overcomes many of the limitations that file storage faces. Think of file storage as a warehouse. When you first put a box of files in there, it seems like you have plenty of space. But as your data needs grow, you’ll fill up the warehouse to capacity before you know it. Object storage, on the other hand, is like the warehouse, except with no roof. You can keep adding data infinitely – the sky’s the limit.
If you’re primarily retrieving smaller or individual files, then file storage shines with performance, especially with relatively low amounts of data. Once you start scaling, though, you may start wondering, “How am I going to find the file I need?”
In this case, you can think of object storage as valet parking while file storage is more like self-parking (yes, another analogy, but bear with me!). When you pull your car into a small lot, you know exactly where your car is. However, imagine that lot was a thousand times larger – it’d be harder to find your car, right?
Because object storage has customizable metadata and all the objects live on a flat address space, it’s similar to handing your keys over to a valet. Your car will be stored somewhere, and when you need it, the valet will get the car for you. It might take a little longer to retrieve your car, but you don’t have to worry about wandering around looking for it.
Object Storage vs File Storage
Object Storage Metadata
For a real-life example of why metadata makes a difference, we can look at X-rays. An X-ray file would have limited metadata associated with it, such as created date, owner, location, and size. An X-ray object, on the other hand, could have a rich variety of metadata information.
The metadata could include patient name, date of birth, injury details, which area of the body was X-rayed – in addition to the same tags that the file had. This makes it incredibly useful for doctors to pull up the relevant information for reference.
If you want a more straightforward side-by-side comparison, take a look at this table:
|OBJECT STORAGE||FILE STORAGE|
|PERFORMANCE||Performs best for big content and high stream throughput||Performs best for smaller files|
|GEOGRAPHY||Data can be stored across multiple regions||Data typically needs to be shared locally|
|SCALABILITY||Scales infinitely to petabytes and beyond||Potentially scales up to millions of files, but can’t handle more|
|ANALYTICS||Customizable metadata, not limited to number of tags||Limited number of set metadata tags|
This was only a general overview of the differences between object storage and file storage, but it should give you a clearer idea of the advantages of each type.
Object Storage and File Storage Together
Now Cloudian offers a way to get the goodness of object storage for your files: Cloudian HyperFile, a scale-out file storage system that provides enterprise NAS features together with the scalability and cost of object storage.
To learn more about Cloudian HyperStore object storage, try it for yourself. Sign up for a free trial today.